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What’s the difference between common wheat and durum wheat?
Common or soft wheat (Triticum Aestivum) is a flaky kernel that produces flour when ground; there are several types, according to the degree of refinement: ‘00’, ‘0’, ‘1’, ‘2’ and whole grain. Durum wheat (Triticum Durum) is a larger kernel, ‘harder’ than common wheat, that produces semolina, a product with coarser grain and yellow in colour (due to the presence of carotenoids). Semolina can be re-ground to obtain a smaller grain and can also be wholemeal (whole kernel).
What is gluten?
Gluten is the protein complex that gives the dough structure. It is made up of the two insoluble proteins in flour, gliadin and glutenin, and is created when water is added to the dough during kneading.
What do the w and p/l indexes indicate on a bag of flour?
The W index is used to indicate the strength of the flour, i.e. its ability to resist the action of yeast during the proofing stage. A product that requires long proofing will need flour with a high W value, and vice versa. Another essential feature of flour is its elasticity, which is indicated by the P/L index. The average market values are P/L between 0.50 and 0.70, which indicates versatile flour with good elasticity, suitable for most preparations.
When is it preferable to choose a strong flour? And when a weak one?
The strength of the flour is essential to understand what is the best use that can be made of it. Biscuits, bread, panettone, each of these products requires different levels of W to perform better during processing.
What is product shelf life?
Shelf-life is the length of time a product may be stored without becoming unfit for use, consumption or sale.
How should flour be preserved?
Flour must be kept in a sealed bag in a cool, dry place that’s ventilated and far from sources of light and heat. Once the bag has been opened, the flour should preferably be transferred into a closed container.
What is wheat germ?
The wheat germ, is the main part of the seed, the embryo from which the plant is born. For this reason, it is rich in nutrients such as vitamin E, vitamin B (B1, B2, B3), vitamin A, amino acids, mineral salts and "good" fats.
What are mycotoxin?
Mycotoxins are secondary metobolites that have toxic activity. They are produced with appropriate climatic conditions due to parasitic fungus. Directives and regulations have been issued to set maximum values for each type of product and for each mycotoxin, this because, they can cause different pathologies (acute or chronic). if they are ingested by humans or animals.
What is meant by "ashes" when it comes to flour?
Ashes are the mineral salts present in the outermost part of the seed (the bran). Through certain values, it is possible to understand the degree of refinement of the flour:
- Type "00": maximum 0.55 of ashes
- Type "0": maximum 0.65 of ashes
- Type "1": maximum 0.80 of ashes
- Type "2": maximum 0.95
- Whole wheat: minimum 1.30 and maximum 1.70
The greater the presence of bran in a flour, the higher the ashes.
What is meant by absorption of flour?
By "Flour absorption" we mean its ability to retain liquids. It changes based on damaged starches and insoluble proteins (ie glutamine and glutin forming gluten). This value is given by the Brabender pharynograph.
What is meant by stability of the flour?
By stability of the flour, we mean the value that is found by measuring the tolerance time to a continuous mechanical effort, before the structure is damaged. This value is found with the Brabender pharynograph